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Chera Chola Pandya History In Tamil.pdf

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Chera Chola Pandya History In Tamil.pdf

the malabar coast, the western coast of the indian peninsula, was a commercial and military outpost of the chola empire, until about the late 8th century. the successor of the cholas, the cheras, were the first to pay tribute to the pallavas in the second century. the cheras were one of the five kingdoms of kerala, the other four being the pandyas, the cholas, the vattiyans and the pandyas.

the cheras, who ruled over the port city of karur, had their capital in nelliyampatty, which was built by madhavarman sundara chola. after the fall of the chola empire in the 9th century, the cheras also fell victim to the pallavas in the mid-tenth century. the cholas re-asserted themselves as the rulers of malabar, while the cheras became rulers of cochin. the chera emperors began minting their own coins as early as the 11th century.

pandalam, in the modern tirunelveli district of tamil nadu is a little south of karaikudi. the pallavas ruled over the coastal areas for hundreds of years. it was during the 14th century that the cholas re-established their kingdom and ruled over the northern part of the peninsula. the cholas attacked and occupied the pallava empire in the 14th century and the cheras became rulers of the whole of malabar by the end of the 15th century.

the cholas first came to prominence in the 10th century under king raja raja chola i (985-1014). the chola dynasty later extended its influence across the region. raja raja chola ii (1014-1054) was the third chola king. he conquered the kakatiya kingdom. he also captured the cities of jayapura and madurai in what is now tamil nadu, as well as the states of andhra pradesh and karnataka. he built a fort on the island of sri lanka and set about conquering more lands. the chola empire had successfully gained its position during this period. the chola empire was made up of the southernmost kingdoms of the peninsula, and also included the malayas. they were all ruled by rajaraja who became the king of all. the cholas also ruled over the western part of the peninsula. rajaraja chola iii (1054-1095) was the fourth king of the cholas. the cholas were in close contact with the pallavas and the pandyas, and also had ties with the cheras and the pandiyas. they built a fort at madurai and in the 10th century, built a new capital at tanjavur. 3d9ccd7d82


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