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Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.


The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. First, we show that a single intracranial injection of AAV encoding human IFN-β eliminates invasive human GBM8 tumors and promotes long-term survival. Next, we screened five AAV-IFN-β vectors with different promoters to drive safe expression of mouse IFN-β in the brain in the context of syngeneic GL261 tumors. Two AAV-IFN-β vectors were excluded due to safety concerns, but therapeutic studies with the other three vectors showed extensive tumor cell death, activation of microglia surrounding the tumors, and a 56% increase in median survival of the animals treated with AAV/P2-Int-mIFN-β vector. We also assessed the therapeutic effect of combining AAV-IFN-β therapy with temozolomide (TMZ). As TMZ affects DNA replication, an event that is crucial for second-strand DNA synthesis of single-stranded AAV vectors before active transcription, we tested two TMZ treatment regimens. Treatment with TMZ prior to AAV-IFN-β abrogated any benefit from the latter, while the reverse order of treatment doubled the median survival compared to controls. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of intracranial AAV-IFN-β therapy in a highly migratory GBM model as well as in a syngeneic mouse model and that combination with TMZ is likely to enhance its antitumor potency. 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Biodiversity has always been predominantly microbial, and the scarcity of fossils from bacteria, archaea and microbial eukaryotes has prevented a comprehensive dating of the tree of life. Here, we show that patterns of lateral gene transfer deduced from an analysis of modern genomes encode a novel and abundant source of information about the temporal coexistence of lineages throughout the history of life. We use state-of-the-art species tree-aware phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the history of thousands of gene families and demonstrate that dates implied by gene transfers are consistent with estimates from relaxed molecular clocks in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. We present the order of speciations according to lateral gene transfer data calibrated to geological time for three datasets comprising 40 genomes for Cyanobacteria, 60 genomes for Archaea and 60 genomes for Fungi. An inspection of discrepancies between transfers and clocks and a comparison with mammalian fossils show that gene transfer in microbes is potentially as informative for dating the tree of life as the geological record in macroorganisms.


Biodegradable and elastomeric patches have been applied to the surface of infarcted hearts as temporary mechanical supports to effectively alter adverse left ventricular remodeling processes. In this report, recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV), known for its persistent transgene expression and low pathogenicity, was incorporated into elastomeric polyester urethane urea (PEUU) and polyester ether urethane urea (PEEUU) and processed by electrospinning into two formats (solid fibers and core-sheath fibers) designed to influence the controlled release behavior. The extended release of AAV encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was assessed in vitro. Sustained and localized viral particle delivery was achieved over 2 months in vitro. The biodegradable cardiac patches with or without AAV-GFP were implanted over rat left ventricular lesions three days following myocardial infarction to evaluate the transduction effect of released viral vectors. AAV particles were directly injected into the infarcted hearts as a control. Cardiac function and remodeling were significantly improved for 12 weeks after patch implantation compared to AAV injection. More GFP genes was expressed in the AAV patch group than AAV injection group, with both α-SMA positive cells and cardiac troponin T positive cells transduced in the patch group. Overall, the extended release behavior, prolonged transgene expression, and elastomeric mechanical properties make the AAV-loaded scaffold an attractive option for cardiac tissue engineering where both gene delivery and appropriate mechanical support are desired. Copyright 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. 153554b96e






https://www.brandywinevalleybyway.org/group/mysite-200-group/discussion/88c25900-acff-4cfc-9962-4c9eedd428c3

https://es.thefatimafoundation.com/forum/general-discussion/civilizaciones-actuales-fernand-braudel-pdf-60

https://www.springadv.com/group/mysite-231-group/discussion/409b7603-7e4a-449e-89a6-e230d2b8644f

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