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Measuring The World (2012) 2021

Measuring the World (2012) features Germany in the early 19th century. The movie follows the lives of the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss and German geographer Alexander von Humboldt and their many groundbreaking ways of measuring the world, evolving from their meeting in 1828 on the occasion of the first German Scientific Congress in Berlin organized by Humboldt. Adaptation of Daniel Kehlmann's novel "Measuring the World".

Measuring the World (2012)

The healthy life approach focuses on the pathogenesis and natural history of disease as the conceptual framework for assessing morbidity and mortality, and for interpreting the effects of various interventions. Interventions may also be directed at reducing identifiable risk factors, such as tobacco smoking or risky sexual behaviour. To the extent that risk reduction can be translated into disease reduction, the approach to measuring the benefits and costs of a risk reduction intervention programme remains the same as that for disease reduction.

The term DALEs was replaced by the term HALEs (health-adjusted life expectancy) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 and this is the term that we will use here. The HALE is a composite summary measure of population health status that belongs to the family of health expectancies. It summarises the expected number of years to be lived in what might be termed the equivalent of full health. Some consider the HALE to provide the best available summary measure for measuring the overall level of health for populations.27 The WHO has used it as a measure of the average level of health of the populations of member states for annual reporting.

Trends in disease burden provide important clues to the success of ongoing health programmes and the need for development of new interventions. At the same time, they reflect non-health factors that are important to the production or maintenance of health in populations. Inter-country and inter-regional comparisons allow for measuring progress among nations. They can highlight inequalities in health status and examine these in relation to social, economic, educational, and other factors as well.

Practical test methods and techniques are presented for measuring the electrical characteristics of grounding systems. Topics addressed include safety considerations, measuring earth resistivity, measuring the power system frequency resistance or impedance of the ground system to remote earth, measuring the transient or surge impedance of the ground system to remote earth, measuring step and touch voltages, verifying the integrity of the grounding system, reviewing common methods for performing ground testing, reviewing instrumentation characteristics and limitations, and reviewing various factors that can distort test measurements.

Learn More 81.2-1991 IEEE Guide for Measurement of Impedance and Safety Characteristics of Large, Extended or Interconnected Grounding Systems Practical instrumentation methods are presented for measuring the ac characteristics of large, extended or interconnected grounding systems. Measurements of impedance to remote earth, step and touch potentials, and current distributions are covered for grounding systems ranging in complexity from small grids (less than 900m 2), with only a few connected overhead or direct burial bare concentric (2) neutrals, to large grids (greater than 20 000m 2), with many connected neutrals, overhead ground wires (sky wires), counterpoises, grid tie conductors, cable shields, and metallic pipes. This standard addresses measurement safety; earth-return mutual errors; low-current measurements; power-system staged faults; communication and control cable transfer impedance; current distribution (current splits) in the grounding system; step, touch, mesh, and profile measurements; the foot-equivalent electrode earth resistance; and instrumentation characteristics and limitations.

According to Moisés Naím's essay "Mafia States" (May/June 2012), the world now faces a grave "new threat": governments that have been taken over by organized crime. These "mafia states" are so dangerous, Naím argues, that they are no longer merely a law enforcement challenge but a full-blown national security threat.

Ratcheting up his rhetoric still further, Naím claims that "the scale and scope of the most powerful criminal organizations now easily match those of the world's largest multinational corporations." This is pure hyperbole, and he offers zero evidence to suggest otherwise. No criminal group comes remotely close to ExxonMobil or Apple in size or power.

To back up his claim that states today are just as criminalized as they were in the past, Andreas points to Cuba in the 1940s and 1950s, Bolivia in the 1980s, and Serbia in the 1990s. "The nature and difficulty of the challenge is not fundamentally new," he writes. To believe that, however, one would also need to believe that not much else has changed in the world in recent decades. In fact, since the late 1980s, businesses, terrorists, charities, aid organizations, media, political activists, churches, and many other groups have taken advantage of globalization to expand their influence. If Andreas is to be believed, organized crime would be the only exception -- a bold assumption he apparently feels no need to explain.

Andreas is not ready to acknowledge this new reality. For him, the challenge posed today by Hugo Chávez's Venezuela, for example, is analytically indistinguishable from that posed by the weak government of Bolivia's Luis García Meza, a regime that barely lasted a full year. Venezuela today is one of the world's top oil exporters, and its government includes known drug traffickers and has close alliances with the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), Cuba, Iran, and Belarus. It is absurd to place the country in the same category as Bolivia in 1980, an impoverished and isolated state run by a feeble military junta whose main illicit activity was selling basic coca paste.

Medical Ethics has taken a turn towards empiricism, and empirically measuring the four principles is a key challenge in the new Medical Ethics. Katie Page, from the Queensland University of Technology, has recently published an article in BMC Medical Ethics that attempts to measure empirically the four principles and examines whether the principles can predict applied medical decision making.

She discovers that there is a preference of non-maleficence over the other three principles, but that the preference does not translate when used in real-world ethical judgements. Her findings serve as an elegant example of quantifying and refining established philosophical constructs, and her conclusions raise a number of philosophical questions regarding the nature and usefulness of the four principles.

There has been a world-wide surge of interest in cycling over the last 10 years of which London has seen a continuous growth in cyclists and investment in infrastructure that has resulted in the introduction of the Barclays Cycle Superhighway and Barclays Cycling Hiring Scheme. Despite the investment in cycling infrastructure, there has been little understanding of cycling activity patterns in general and the effect of spatial configuration on cycling route choices. This research aims at measuring the impact of cycling infrastructure and spatial configuration on aggregate cyclist movement over two time periods. To do so, this paper presents a spatial-based cyclist movement statistical model that regress cyclist movement flows with measure of spatial configuration, safety and infrastructure and urban character attributes. Using Elephant and Castle, a Central London location, as a case study, the authors analyze cycling movement data sets from 2003 and 2012 to compare the change in cycling behaviour and the impact that the Cycling Superhighway 07, introduced in 2011, has had on cycling patterns. Findings confirm the growth of cycling in London with a 1000% increase in cyclists along some routes in comparison to a 10% increase in population at the same time. More importantly, results also suggest that higher cyclist movement were observed along routes with greater convenience and continuity-over and above route segregation from vehicular traffic. The relationship between spatial configuration and aggregate cyclists movement is consistent between 2003 and 2012 where spatial configuration have remained the same while changes were observed in both modal split and cycling infrastructure. This result is in line with previous research wherein aggregate higher cyclists movement are observed on major routes offering direct connections than less direct routes. From a spatial cognition perspective, this research enriches our understanding on how the external built environment as measured by the spatial configuration measure relates to aggregated cyclists movement overtime and in identifying key potential factors in influencing cyclist wayfinding. Further research is needed into validating the results and examining this relationship at an individual basis on route choice. These results help us better understand the trade off between cycling safety and cycling legibility which could help inform cycling route design in the future.

At this pivotal moment, WRI President & CEO Ani Dasgupta will share insights into our predictions for the big stories coming up in 2023, including what actions governments, businesses, institutions and people must take to get the world on the right path.

BERGER: Well, it really is this notion of measuring the performance of an organization to show that in fact there is evidence that it is doing what it states that it wants to do. So it's a way to measure performance among charities.

So it's - there are a variety of ways that it can be gone about, and we are planning to begin measuring it in some particular ways. One example of a way that's pretty universal that we think could be used to measure, and some charities have begun to, is coming from the world of customer satisfaction surveys. But in this case it's the beneficiary or the client, asking the client themselves whether or not the services were what they needed and were satisfactory. That's one example. 041b061a72


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